Natural gas and electricity

Discover essential information about the characteristics and value chain of natural gas and electricity.

Natural gas

Natural gas will play a key role in the transition to a less carbon-intensive economy, constituting a natural alternative to coal, whose consumption should be reduced, as a back-up support for the intermittence of renewable energies in electricity generation.

What is natural gas?

Natural gas is a mixture of light hydrocarbons found underground, in which methane has a share of more than 70% by volume.


Natural gas is found underground, by accumulations in porous rocks, isolated from the outside by impermeable rocks. It is the result of the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, originating from extraordinary amounts of microorganisms. This organic matter degraded out of contact with the air, at high temperatures and under strong pressures.


The composition of natural gas can vary depending on the field in which the gas is produced, the production process, conditioning, processing and transport. Generally, it has a density of less than 1 (lighter than air) and a higher calorific value between 8,000 and 10,000 kcal/m³, depending on the contents of heavy substances, especially ethane and propane, and inert substances, namely nitrogen and carbon dioxide. .

Value chain

Before reaching end customers, natural gas goes through a complex set of processes and activities, which vary depending on distance and available transport resources.

Galp supplies natural gas, either via pipelines or using LNG, over longer distances. Transporting natural gas by sea requires that the gas be subjected to a cooling process (-160º) in order to maintain the liquid state (liquefied natural gas) at a pressure slightly higher than atmospheric pressure. At the destination terminals, the gas is again transformed into a gaseous state, in order to be injected into the distribution network.

Learn more about the Company

The existence of high pressure pipeline connection in the vicinity of processing and distribution sites is the most important factor in shaping the natural gas value chain.

Close to consumption locations, natural gas is distributed through a complex network, covering thousands of kilometers, covering the main consumption areas, namely industrial and retaLearn more about the management of regulated distribution infrastructures.

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